the last few centuries a lot of research has been carried out
to study the structures and workings of our brains. It is known
now about 95 percent of all information about the human brain.
The study has given us a clear
idea about the component part of the brain
-> Important (main) function of the brain
-> Skill centers and their distribution through the brain
-> How do we learn and what do we recall most easily?
-> What technique is adapted by those extraordinary yet normal
people who are able to remember so much more than others?
The Brain cell:
human brain consists of one million brain cells. Each brain
contains a vast electrochemical complex and a powerful micro
- data processing and transmitting system. Each of the brain
cells has a central body and thousands of branches radiating
from the center or nucleus. These branches are called dendrites.
One of them is large and is called the axon. This transmits
the information from the cell.
Each dendrite spine button contains bundles of chemicals which
and the major message - carries in our thinking process. A dendrite
spine / synaptic button from one brain cell will link with a
synaptic button from another brain cell. When an electrical
impulse travels through the brain cell, chemicals will be transferred
across the minute, liquid filled space between the two. This
space is called the synaptic gap.
The chemicals move into the receiving surface creating an impulse
that travels through the receiving brain cell where it is directed
to an adjoining brain cell.
A brain cell may receive incoming pulses from hundreds of thousands
of connecting points every second, acting like a vast telephone
exchange. The sum data of all incoming information and will
redirect it along the appropriate path.
As a message is passed from brain cell to brain cell, a biochemical
electromagnetic pathway is established. Each of these neuronal
pathways is known as a 'memory trace'. These memory traces or
mental maps are one of the most exciting areas of modern brain
research and have given some startling conclusions.
We can show that each of the ten billion neurons in the human
brain has a possibility of connection of one with twenty-eight
noughts after it! If a single neuron has this quality of potential,
we can hardly imagine what the whole brain can do. What it means
is that the total number of possible combination / permutations
in the brain, if written out, would be followed by 10.5 million
km of noughts.
No human yet exists who can use all the potential of his brain.
This is why we don't accept any pessimistic estimates of the
limits of the human brain. It is unlimited.
two sides or hemispheres of the cortex tend to divide the major
intellectual functions between them. The right hemisphere appeared
to be dominant in the following intellectual areas: rhythm,
spatial awareness, gestalt (wholeness). Imagination, daydreaming,
color and dimension. The left hemisphere appeared dominant in
a different but equally powerful range of mental skills: words,
logic, numbers, sequence, linearity, analysis and lists.
Although each hemisphere is dominant in certain activities,
they are both basically skilled in all areas, and the mental
skills are actually distributed throughout the cortex.
Learning - Remembering:
Research has shown that, during the learning process, the human
brain primarily remembers the following
--> Items from the beginning period (the primary effect)
--> Items from the end of the learning period (the recency
--> Any items associated with things or pattern already stored
or linked to other aspects of what is being learned.
--> Any items which are emphasized as being in some way outstanding
--> Any items which appeal particularly strongly to any of
the five senses
--> Those items which are of particular interest to the person
Human mind is sometimes compared to computer or rather computer
is sometimes compared to human mind. Mind, however is infinitely
superior to computers. First of all computers remember the basic
or fundamental instructions could into it which enable it to
function. This memory may be compared with our intuitions and
instincts and perhaps the way we interpret the sense data. Computers
have however, another memory. If we type or draw something on
computer and then give it a command called 'save' our typed
material or drawn picture goes into computers memory and we
can bring it back or recall it as and when we desire.
So also the memory created in our brain could be recalled as
and when we require. But the memory in our brain cannot be recalled
when the information has not been registered in the first place
or registered imperfectly.The information to be registered is
obtained through the sense organs. The sense organs such as
eyes, ears, taste buds and pain nerves in the skin receive impression
from the environment. They serve as input channels which gather
information from the environment. Each sense organ is however
a very specialized instrument attuned only to one type of stimulation.
The information processing of human perceptual
and cognitive activities are useful in imaging how we experience
the perceptual world how we recognize object, how we remember,
and how we understand. In other words, it all refers cognition
which deals with the processes through which in formation coming
from senses is transformed, reduced, elaborated and recovered.
The total time from stimulus onset to the occurrence of the
response can be divided into intervals, each characterized by
different operation. Each process can be assigned a duration.
It is the identification of process along with determination
of their position and impact in sequence, which provides the
major task for informationprocessing.
Learning and integration
Learning is a steady and gradual process.
Learning pace can be accelerated by involving maximum number
of senses. Sensory experience forms the foundation of intellectual
activity within and formal school situation and learners differ
in the effectiveness of t5heir sense reception. Besides cognition
and conceptualization depend on a chain of events which begins
with the learners perception of stimulus. These initial learning
experiences can be accurate, dependable and understandable unless
the learners initial sensory impressions are accurate.
Sensory integration means 'activation and integration
of senses by enhancing attention and organizing the stimuli
in order to process an information in a desirable manner' Integration
of senses can be enhanced by attracting attention with the help
of attention activators. Aristotle was the first man to use
this concept of sensory integration to 'senses communes or common
sense' to integrate the information from the various senses
into a single perception. Sensory integration attracts attention
of the students, motivates and thereby enhances the learning
process as it facilitates information processing. Hence integration
of senses plays a vital role in learning and information processing.
Sensory integration in information
Sensory integration integrates all
the five senses and helps in the processing of information.
It identifies all the sensory stimuli from the outer environment,
integrate and orient them properly to register in sensory register
leading to perception. This integration attracts the attention
of the learners and creates motivation among them facilitating
Sensory integration and Attention:
integration enhances attention and helps to process the information
in a desirable way with the help of stimulus determinants of
attention. Attention can be enhanced which are nothing but characteristics
of the stimuli itself. According to James F. Engel, Roger D.
Blackwell and Paul Minard, the stimulus determinants of attention
are the following:
1. Size: In general, larger the size of the
coming stimuli the more likely, it will attract attention.
2. Color: The level of holding and retaining
the stimuli from environment for registering it in sensory register
can be sharply increased by the use of colour.
3. Intensity: Greater intensity of the stimuli
gains more attention than less intensity.
4. Position: Stimuli may be more noticeable
by certain locational properties.
5. Directionality: Our eyes will tend follow
any signs within the stimulus that indicate direction.
6. Movement: Stimuli in motion elicit greater
attention than the static stimuli.
7. Novelty: A stimuli which is novel in character
will facilitate attention.
and selective use of the media can also direct and control learners
attention and create readiness for participating in the learning
experience. It also enhances positive attitude of the students
towards what they are learning and to the learning process and
enrich the quality of learning.
stimuli can also attract student’s attention.
draw the listener’s attention due to voice modulation.
All the determinants take their role in different ways, visual,
audio, olfactory, taste and feeling experiences. By integrating
different senses with attention determinants, we enhance the
information processing and quality learning.
Media for sensory Integration:
Media acts as effective tools of learning. Learning media have
several definable functions:
1. Media presents the stimulus effectively.
2. Directing and controlling student’s attention
3. Creating readiness in the learner for participating in the
4. Providing clarity and accuracy of the information to be processed
5. Enhancing positive attitude of the student towards what they
learnt and to the learning process and enrich the quality of
Kinds of media used for sensory
Visual: Pictures, Photographs, Video Cassettes,
real objects etc.,
Audio: Audio cassettes, radio, integrative
use of audio and visual aids
Taste: Vegetables, fruits, chemicals etc.,
Smell: Chemicals, food items, smell of flowers.
Touch: Feeling type writers, machines, tools,
imagine life without memory? Human beings must have some system
for retaining what they just did so that they behave in a proper
sequence. The system which carries out this task, the abilityto
store details of what we have perceived, for further reference
is 'memory'. Human memory has extra ordinary capacity to mix,
intermingle and combine information in a way that no artificial
memory system can approach. It is a complex and exiting process.
Memory as part of the cognitive
Earlier studies looked at human memory
in terms of association, connections between stimuli and responses.
The current trend in the study of memory is to emphasize cognitive
processes, through which information coming from senses is transformed,
reduced, elaborated, recovered and used modern study of memory
emphasizes the mental processes involved in storing information
and retrieving it from memory apart from cognitive system.
Significance of Memory in classroom:
of the aims of education is to help students develop information,
skills, learning strategies and attitudes that they can call
on when they need them. Learners are not mere empty vessels
to be filled with information.